NORTHERN PECAN (Carya illinoensis)
As with most nut trees, pecans produce their heaviest crops when several varieties are planted together. All of our selections will perform well in the Ohio Valley. More northern localities should try the cultivars listed under far northern pecans. All of the following varieties have very good scab resistance, except for Pawnee which has medium resistance. Trees reach heights of 50-'70' and can be planted on 25-30' centers and eventually thinned to 50-60' apart. First harvest in 3-6 years. To insure pollination, plant at least one protandrous (Type 1, early pollen shed) and one protogynous (Type 2, late pollen shed) variety in each planting.
KANZA This new release from the USDA pecan breeding program is a cross between Major and Shoshoni. Nuts are large (69/lb.) and 54% kernel, mature early and crack out very high quality kernels. Selected for high productivity, disease resistance, cold tolerance, and annual bearing. Kanza comes into production early. Type 2.
MAJOR The original Major pecan grew on the delta of the Green River at the Ohio River, near Henderson, Kentucky. There are many impressive features of the Major pecan, particularly its heavy annual bearing characteristic. Trees produce nuts which are medium sized (60-80 per lb.), somewhat round, thin shelled, easy to crack, and probably the best flavor you can find in pecans. Major should be widely planted in the northern pecan range. Major is a heavy early pollen producer, Type 1, and takes about 180 days to mature nuts.
MANDAN Released in 2009 by USDA, Mandan combines high nut quality, high yield potential, very early nut maturity, and excellent scab resistance. Nuts are very large for a northern variety (53/lb., 62% kernel) and easily crack out full haves. Trees leaf out late in spring and develop upright growth with strong limbs and a wind -resistant structure. Type 1 flowering, and requires about 165 days to ripen.
MOHAWK Released by the USDA pecan breeding program, Mohawk produced a very large (30-50 nuts per lb.), very thin shelled nut with close to 60% kernel. Mohawk matures late in the season, and is adapted to the lower Ohio Valley and the western half of Kentucky and Tennessee. Older trees tend to overproduce. 185 days to maturity; Type 2.
PAWNEE Pawnee was released in 1984 by the USDA. It is a precocious producer of large (50 to 60 per lb.), thin shelled nuts of high quality. This cultivar is thought to have a high yield potential, and early nut maturity (170 days) should contribute to regular bearing capability. Pawnee is an outstanding northern cultivar, but should be planted in open sites with good air circulation. Type 1.
POSEY The original Posey tree grew in Posey County, Indiana. An early maturing, large sized nut at around 70 nuts per lb., Posey is also a good late pollen producer (Type 2) . Posey can be grown from northern Kansas across the northern Ohio River Valley, and into southeastern Pennsylvania. Nuts require 170 days to ripen.
YATES 68 This tree originated as a Major seedling in Ed Yates' Chrisney, IN. pecan grove. The nut resembles a Major X Posey, but is usually larger in size than either of them. Kernel percentage is close to 60%, and the kernel cracks out easily in halves, of very high quality. Yates 68 matures in about a 180 days and is a good producer. Type 1.
YATES 127 This tree also originates in the Yates' Chrisney, IN. pecan grove, as a Major seedling, possibly with a Posey pollen parent. The nut resembles Yates 68 in size and appearance, with a very thin shell. By clipping the ends off this nut, the entire kernel can be removed in 1 piece. The nut is 62% high quality kernel. Yates 127 is a very good producer of nuts that mature in about 170 days. Yates 127 has Type 1 flowering but is late to leaf out in the spring and is probably self-pollinating.
|# OF NUTS PER LB.||PERCENT KERNEL
|YATES 68||INDIANA||EARLY||LATE||69||58||MED||VERY GOOD|
Other varieties sometimes available : Hickry's Major, Hirschi, Lakota, Meramec, Nacono